colordiff is a wrapper for diff and produces the same output as diff but with coloured syntax highlighting at the command line to improve readability.

The output is similar to how a diff-generated patch might appear in Vim or Emacs with the appropriate syntax highlighting options enabled.

The colour schemes can be read from a central configuration file or from a local user ~/.colordiffrc file.

To enjoy on Ubuntu:

sudo apt install colordiff

Check these if you cannot ssh

In addition to checking that /etc/ssh/sshd_config is correct, you will want to check that the permissions on the user’s home directory and ~/.ssh are correct. I have gathered that:

  • The home directory must only be owned by AND only be writable by the login user.
  • The .ssh directory must only be accessible by the user.
  • The authorized_keys file must be only writable by the user.
[foo@foo-nas ~/.ssh]$ ls -la -D ""
total 14
drwx------  2 foo  foogrp    3  .
drwxr-x---  5 foo  foogrp   15  ..
-rw-r--r--  1 foo  foogrp  395  authorized_keys

ZFS expansion drive on Ubuntu

What ZFS has to offer for a laptop

ZFS is best used in a RAID configuration:

  • mirror (at least 2 disks)
  • raidz1 (at least 3 disks)
  • raidz2 (at least 4 disks)
  • raidz3 (5 or more disks)

A laptop does not typically offer the advantage of being able to house so many disks. Nevertheless, ZFS offers other advantages that make it sensible to use on a laptop:

  • scrubbing and on-line file system repair
  • snapshots
  • transparent compression
  • transparent encryption

I have two drives in my laptop:

  • a 256 GB SSD OS drive
  • a 512 GB 7200 RPM expansion drive

It might make sense at some point to replace the expansion drive with a higher capacity drive. For now, I installed ZFS onto the expansion drive, inspired by:

Ideally, I would have a mirror between my OS drive and a partition on the expansion drive; however, not only is my expansion drive fairly limited, but also this is my first attempt at using ZFS beyond FreeNAS, which handles ZFS at arm’s length.  So, I decided to start with something simple: ZFS on an unmirrored disk.

Preliminary step

Although the kernel in Ubuntu 16.04 LTS supports ZFS, I needed to install the ZFS utils:
  apt-get install zfsutils-linux
to use the zpool and zfs commands.

What I should have done, perhaps

If I am reading the man page correctly for the zpool command (which says that the device name path is relative to /dev), I could have deduced the invariant id for my disk
using the command:
  ls -l /dev/disk/by-id
and then creating and mounting the “zpool” called “zpdrone” using the command

zpool create zpdrone disk/by-id/\

What I actually did

Unfortunately for me, I hadn’t quite understood the man page, so I went with the first thing that worked:
  zpool create zpdrone sda

I next created a ZFS file system (“drone”) and enabled compression:
  zfs create zpdrone/drone
  zfs set compression=on zpdrone/drone

I proceeded to add some files to my file system (which was mounted at /zpdrone/drone), rebooted, and verified that I could see the files.

What went wrong, and how to fix it

Shortly thereafter, I booted with an external drive attached.
I found that the external drive was assigned to sda, so my expansion drive was assigned to sdb, and consequently my zpool didn’t get mounted; this gave me the opportunity to learn how to untangle the mess that I had caused.  As it turns out, this was not hard to do.

The first step was to “export” the pool (roughly equivalent to sync’ing and unmounting it):
  zpool export zpdrone

The second step was to “import” the pool using the disk ID and pool ID.  I obtained the pool ID (269414010796639802) from the output of
  zpool import
and then told zpool to import it by searching under
for a zpool with the zpool ID

zpool import -d /dev/disk/by-id \

Once again, my file system was mounted at

Subsequently, I could boot with an attached external hard drive, and, as expected,
  zpool status
showed the disk ID for the pool